Prof. Ann D KING
UK: MBChB 1984, MRCP 1987, FRCR 1991
HK: FHKCR & FHKAM 1997, MD (CUHK with commendation) 2008
Tel: 3505 1005



Head and neck radiology, MRI, oncologic imaging

Research Interests:

MRI of the head and neck

– MRI of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (patterns of spread, staging, predictors of treatment response; treatment induced complications; early detection and screening)

– MRI of squamous cell carcinoma and lymphoma

– Functional MRI (DWI, MRS, DCE-MRI and CEST)

– MRI for tumour characterisation

– MRI for prediction of treatment response (pre-treatment & intra-treatment)

– MRI of the post-treatment neck

Research Profile

Professor Ann King is an academic radiologist specialising in head and neck radiology with nearly 30 years of experience in MRI research of head and neck tumours. She has published 235 journals (1/4 as first and 1/3 as corresponding, author). In 2024 her h index and total number of citations were 49 and 8116 (web of science), 53 and 9433 (Scopus) and 60 and 13744 (Goggle scholar).

Professor Ann King’s interest in academia began in 1988 at the Hammersmith Hospital/Royal postgraduate medical school followed by the Middlesex/ University College Hospital, London UK, before moving to the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1995 with the opening of the new MRI service.

MRI of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Professor King’s main research area is MRI of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a cancer that is endemic in Hong Kong. She has published over 95 papers in the subject and her MD entitled “Magnetic resonance imaging of the head and neck in nasopharyngeal carcinoma” was awarded with commendation in 2008. She has been using MRI to routinely stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma for more than 20 years, and her earliest published works in this field were amongst the first to report the MRI patterns of primary tumour spread and nodal spread in this disease. Subsequent publications were amongst the first to compare MRI and PET/CT staging and to describe a wide range of treatment induced complications on MRI. Her work in staging continues today with the current emphasis on anatomical and functional MRI markers for distant metastases. Her other major direction of current research is the role of MRI in the early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Her work was the first to prospectively compare MRI and endoscopy for NPC detection and show that MRI has a very high sensitivity for early NPC detection including detection of endoscopically occult NPCs that make up 10% of all cases presenting clinically and 17- 33% of all cases detected in NPC population screening programs using EBV-DNA (Hong Kong) and EBV antibodies (southern China in collaboration with Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Centre and Sihui Cancer Institute, Guangzhou, National Cancer Institute USA and VU Medical Center in the Netherlands). A five-grade system for MRI detection, designed primarily to improve discrimination between early-stage NPC and benign hyperplasia, has a very high accuracy and can detect NPC up to three years before endoscopy. The team is currently working on a fast non-contrast enhanced MRI protocol for screening programs with automatic detection using AI. Publications include NEJM, Annals Oncology, JNCI, Radiology and AJNR.

Functional/Molecular MRI of Head & Neck tumours

Professor King’s other main area of MRI research is functional/molecular MRI. She has been researching advanced MRI techniques in head and neck tumours, including early intra-treatment response in squamous cell carcinoma, since 2001. Early work focused MRS and DWI and were amongst the first pioneering group of publications in in-vivo cancer imaging, an area which today is the major field for cancer imaging. This was followed by head and neck cancer research into DCE MRI, CEST and currently TI rho imaging. She has worked closely with medical physicists and scientists to overcome the challenges of performing MRI in the head and neck and published over 40 papers in this topic, including technical papers and those related to tumour characterisation, prediction of treatment response (pre-treatment and early intra-treatment) and identification of residual cancer post-treatment.

MRI of the Post-treatment Neck

Post chemoradiotherapy assessment is one of the most challenging fields in head and neck imaging and forms a large part of the imaging service in head and neck oncology centers. Professor King has published widely on the post-treatment neck including functional imaging, refinement of anatomical criteria for detection of residual disease and treatment induced complications.

MRI of Head & Neck lymphoma, Lymph nodes and Thyroid Cancer

Professor King has published papers on a range of head and neck lymphomas, lymph nodes and thyroid cancer.

Professor King and her team have received awards for their work, she has received competitive grants related to NPC and functional imaging as the principal investigator, written book/book chapters, invited reviews and is a regular invited speaker at international conferences and workshops in MRI of the head and neck for 20 years.

Education Profile

Undergraduate MB ChB

Professor Ann king has been a dedicated teacher in the undergraduate medical curriculum at CUHK for nearly 30 years, receiving consistently high teaching scores from her students and being a member of many faculty teaching committees. Since 2002 she has been in charge of developing and coordinating the radiology teaching program, an integrated course that spans the curriculum in three main blocks: (1) Radiology anatomy (Preclinical years), (2) Radiology pathology of emergency and common diseases (First clinical year), (3) Basic clinical radiology (Final Clinical year). Each block contains five modules comprising, Thorax, Abdomen & Pelvis, Musculoskeletal system, Neuroimaging & Head /Neck, and imaging modalities. Knowledge and skills in each module are built up over the course of the curriculum using a wide range of teaching methods that include e-learning, flipped classrooms teaching, interactive lectures with in-class on-line quiz and small group tutorials, modality rotations and end of block examinations. Faculty education award for collaborative teams 2024.


Professor Ann King was head of radiology resident training for 18 years and program director of the new territories east cluster training. Over this period radiology training underwent considerable changes with the implementation of a structured program and log books by the Hong Kong College of Radiologists.

Service Profile

Professor Ann King was recruited in 1995 to help set up the new MRI service and subsequently set up the head & neck MRI service. She currently provides regular weekly clinical service sessions for the public and private patients at the Prince of Wales Hospital. Her main expertise remains in MRI where she provides frontline imaging service sessions covering MRI of the head & neck and neuroimaging, but also provides services in ultrasound of the head & neck, CT of the head & neck and CT in general oncology, plus additional input into clinico-radiological conferences, PET/CT and ad hoc consultations. She works closely with her head and neck colleagues in oncology, radiotherapy and surgery, and provides support for the local and international clinical trials in head and neck cancer.

Professor King is an Honorary consultant in the Department of imaging and interventional radiology in the Prince of Wales hospital and Honorary Consultant in the New territories east cluster. She is a member of the departmental senior staff committee and over the years has taken up many departmental management roles.

Professor King has given over 17 years of service to the Hong Kong College of Radiologists where she was a member of the education committee. Over this period the committee established the guidelines for radiology training in Hong Kong which cover hospital, trainer and trainee requirements. The latter include levels of direct supervision, workload for all imaging investigations, clinic-radiological conferences, audit, quality assurance, teaching and research. These guidelines were set up well before those in the sister College in the UK. Subsequently through this committee, training course subcommittee and accreditation subcommittee she has helped to develop and monitor the training and teaching courses in Hong Kong, and been a senior member on hospital re-accreditation assessments in 2007, 2012 and 2017. Professor King has also been an examiner for joint the Royal College of Radiologists UK and the Hong Kong College of Radiologists Final Examination for the Fellowship, and the Hong Kong College of Radiologists Exit Examination from 2005-2014.

Current service to international bodies
• Member of the Head and Neck Cancer International working Group (HNCIG) on consensus on definition and grading of radiologic extranodal extension (ENE) in head and neck cancer 2023
• Member of the AJCC expert panel on staging nasopharyngeal carcinoma (9th edition) 2023

Selected Publications

MRI of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Early Detection of NPC

King AD*, Qi AYH, Lam JWK, Tse IOL, So TYT, Wong LM, Tsang JYM, Leung HS, Zee BCY, Hui EP, Ma BBY, Vlantis AC, van Hasselt AC, Chan ATC. Early detection carcinoma: performance of a short contrast-free screening MRI. Journal of the National of nasopharyngeal Cancer Institute (in press).

Chan KCA, Lam J, King AD, Lin VS, Lee PPH, Zee BCY, Chan SL, Tse IOL, Tsang AFC, Li MZJ, Jiang PY, Ai QY, Poon DMC, Au KH, Hui EP, Ma BBY, Van Hasselt AC, Chan ATC, Woo JKS, Lo YMD. Plasma Epstein–Barr virus DNA and risk of future nasopharyngeal cancer. NEJM Evidence 2023 June, doi: 10.1056/EVIDoa2200309

Lam WKJ, King AD*, Miller JA, Liu Z, Yu KJ, Chua MLK, Ma BBY, Chen MY, et al. Recommendations for Epstein-Barr virus-based screening for nasopharyngeal cancer in high- and intermediate-risk regions. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2023 Apr 11;115(4):355-364. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djad012.

Wong LM, Ai QYH, Zhang R, Frankie M, King AD* Radiomics for the Discrimination Between Early-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Benign Hyperplasia with Stable Feature Selection on MRI. Cancers 2022, 14, 3433.

Chan DCT, Lam WKJ, Hui EP, Ma BBY, Chan CML, Lee VCT, Cheng SH, Gai W, Jiang P, Wong KCW, Mo F, Zee B, King AD, Le QT, Chan ATC, Chan KCA, Lo YMD. Improved risk stratification of nasopharyngeal cancer by targeted sequencing of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in post-treatment plasma. Ann Oncol. 2022;33(8):794-803. doi: 10.1016/j.annonc.2022.04.068.

Chen GH, Liu Z, Yu KJ, Coghill AE, Chen XX, Xie SH, Lin DF, Huang QH, Lu YQ, Ling W, Lin CY, Lu ZJ, Fan YY, Tang LQ, Sampson JN, Li H, King AD, Middeldorp JM, Hildesheim A, Cao SM. Utility of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Nasopharynx Swabs as a Reflex Test to Triage Seropositive Individuals in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Screening Programs. Clin Chem. 2022:68(7):953-962; doi: 10.1093/clinchem/hvac032

Wong LM, Ai QYH, Poon DMC, Tong M, Ma BBY, Hui EP, Shi L, King AD*. A convolutional neural network combined with positional and textural attention for the fully automatic delineation of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma on non-contrast-enhanced MRI. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2021 Sep;11(9):3932-3944. PMID: 34476179 doi: 10.21037/qims-21-196

Liu Z, Li H, Yu KJ, Xie SH, King AD, Ai QH, Chen WJ, Chen XX, Lu ZJ, Tang LQ, Wang L, Xie CM, Ling W, Lu YQ, Huang QH, Coghill AE, Fakhry C, Pfeiffer RM, Zeng YX, Cao SM, Hildesheim A. Comparison of new magnetic resonance imaging grading system with conventional endoscopy for the early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer 2021;127(18):3403-3412
doi: 10.1002/cncr.33552

Wong LM, Ai QYH, Mo FKF, Poon DMC, King AD. Convolutional neural network in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: how good is automatic delineation for primary tumor on a non-contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T2-weighted MRI? Jpn J Radiol. 2021;39:571-579. doi: 10.1007/s11604-021-01092-x

Wong LM, King AD*, Ai QYH, Lam WKJ, Poon DMC, Ma BBY, Chan KCA, Mo FKF. Convolutional neural network for discriminating nasopharyngeal carcinoma and benign hyperplasia on MRI. Eur Radiol. 2021;31:3856-3863. Doi: 10.1007/s00330-020-07451-y

Ai QY, King AD*, So TY, Lam WKJ, Mo FKF, Tse IOL, Woo JKS, Chan KCA. MRI of benign hyperplasia in the nasopharynx: is there an association with Epstein-Barr virus? Clin Radiol. 2020 Jun 19:711.e13-711. Doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2020.05.011.

So TY, Ai QH, Lam WKJ, Qamar S, Poon DMC, Hui EP, Mo FKF, Chan KCA, King AD. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging for discrimination of benign and malignant retropharyngeal nodes. Neuroradiology 2020 62(12):1667-1676. Doi: 10.1007/s00234-020-02494-w

King AD*, Woo JKS, Ai QY, Mo FKF, So TY, Lam WKJ, Tse IOL, Vlantis AC, Yip KWN, Hui EP, Ma BBY, Chiu RWK, Chan ATC, Lo YMD, Chan KCA. Early Detection of Cancer: Evaluation of MR Imaging Grading Systems in Patients with Suspected Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol.2020 Mar;41(3):515-521. doi: 10.3174/ajnr. A6444. PMID: 32184223; PMCID: PMC7077896. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2020 Mar;41(3):515-521. Doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A6444 Nominee for the annual Lucien Levy Best Research Article Award.

Ai QY, King AD*, Chan JSM, Chen WT, Chan AKC, Woo JKS, Zee BCY, Chan ATC, Poon DMC, Ma BBY, Hui EP, Ahuja AT, Vlantis AC, Yuan J. Distinguishing early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma from benign hyperplasia using intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MRI. Eur Radiol. 2019 Oct;29(10):5627-5634; doi: 10.1007/s00330-019-06133-8.

King AD*, Woo JKS, Ai QY, Chan JSM, Lam WKJ, Tse IOL, Bhatia KS, Zee BCY, Hui EP, Ma BBY, Chiu RWK, Van Hasselt AC, Chan ATC, Lo YMD, Chan KCA. Complementary roles of MRI and endoscopic examination in the early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Ann Oncol. 2019 Jun 1;30(6):977-982. Doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdz106.

King AD*, Wong LYS, Law BKH, Bhatia KS, Woo JKS, Ai QY, Tan TY, Goh J, Chuah KL, Mo FKF, Chan KCA, Chan ATC, Vlantis AC. MR Imaging Criteria for the Detection of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Discrimination of Early-Stage Primary Tumors from Benign Hyperplasia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2018;39:515-523. Doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A5493.

Chan KCA, Woo JKS, King AD, Zee B, Lam JWK, Chan SL, Chu SWI,1,2,3 Mak C, Tse IOL, Leung SYM, Chan G, Hui EP, Ma BB, Chiu RWK, Leung SF, van Hasselt CA, Chan ATC, Lo YMD. Screening for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA analysis
Accepted by the New England Journal of Medicine 2017

King AD*, Vlantis AC, Yuen TWC, Law BKH, Bhatia KS, Zee BCY, Woo JKS, Chan ATC, Chan KCA, Ahuja AT. Detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by MR imaging: Diagnostic Accuracy of MRI compared with endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy based on long-term follow-up. American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR 2015;36:2380-2385

Chan KC, Hung EC, Woo JK, Chan PK, Leung SF, Lai FP, Cheng AS, Yeung SW, Chan YW, Tsui TK, Kwok JS, King AD, Chan AT, van Hasselt AC, Lo YM. Early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA analysis in a surveillance program. Cancer 2013;119:1838-1844

Bhatia KS, King AD*, Vlantis AC, Ahuja AT, Tse GM. Nasopharyngeal mucosa and adenoids: appearance at MR imaging. Radiology 2012;263:437-443

King AD*, Vlantis AC, Bhatia KS, Zee BC, Woo JK, Tse GM, Chan AT, Ahuja AT. Primary Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Diagnostic Accuracy of MR Imaging versus that of Endoscopy and Endoscopic Biopsy. Radiology 2011;258:531-537

King AD*, Vlantis AC, Tsang RKY, Tse GM, Au AKY, Chan CY, Kok SY, Kwok WT, Lui HK, Ahuja AT. Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. American Journal of Neuroradiology, AJNR 2006; 27: 1288-1291.AJNR 7TH special collection: Head and neck neoplasms AJNR 2011 (collection of best 45 articles published in AJNR over the last 10 years)

NPC Patterns, staging and predictive markers

Ai QY, King AD*, Yuan H, Vardhanabhuti V, Mo FKF, Hung KF, Hui EP, Kwong DLW, Lee VF, Ma BBY.  Radiologic extranodal extension for nodal staging in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (Accepted by Radiotherapy and Oncology December 2023)

Leung HS, King AD*, Chow MWS, Lai CCF, Vlantis AC, Wong KT. Imaging considerations for salvage surgery in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: what surgeons need to know. Clin Radiol. 2022;77:592-599. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2022.04.009.

Ai QH, Hung KF, So TY, Mo FKF, Tsung Anthony Chin W, Hui EP, Ma BBY, Ying M, King AD. Prognostic value of cervical nodal necrosis on staging imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Imaging. 2022. Doi: 10.1186/s40644-022-00462-6

King AD*. MR Imaging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):19-33. Doi: 10.1016/j.mric.2021.06.015

Wong K, Hui E, Lo KW, Lam WK, Johnson D, Li L, Tao Q, Chan KC, To KF, King AD, Ma B, Chan A. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: An Evolving Paradigm. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology. 2021;18:679-695. Doi: 10.1038/s41571-021-00524-x

Ai QY, King AD*, Poon DMC, Mo FKF, Hui EP, Tong M, Ahuja AT, Ma BBY, Chan ATC. Extranodal extension is a criterion for poor outcome in patients with metastatic nodes from cancer of the nasopharynx. Oral Oncology 2019;88:124-130; doi: 10.1016/j.oral oncology.2018.11.007.

Ai QY, King AD*, Mo FKF, Law BKH, Bhatia KS, Poon DMC, Kam MKM, Ma BB. Staging nodal metastases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: which method should be used to measure nodal dimension on MRI? Clinical Radiology 2018;73:640-646; doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2017.12.015.

Ai QY, Hu CW, Bhatia KS, Poon DMC, Hui EP, Mo FKF, Law BKH, Tong M, Ma BB, Chan ATC, King AD. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: relationship between invasion of the prevertebral space and distant metastases. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018;275:497-505. Doi: 10.1007/s00405-017-4825-z.

Yuan H, Ai QY, Kwong DLW, Fong DYF, King AD, Vardhanabhuti V, Lee VHF, Khong PL. Cervical nodal volume for prognostication and risk stratification of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and implications on the TNM-staging system. Scientific Reports 2017;7:13087. Doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-10423-w.

Chan ATC.  Hui EP, Ngan RKC, Tung SY, Cheng ACK, Ng WT, Lee VHF, Ma B, Cheng HC, Wong FCS, Loong HHF, Tong M, Poon DMC, Ahuja AT, King AD, Wang K, Mo F, Zee BCY, Chan AKC, Lo YMD. A multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with residual plasma EBV DNA (EBV DNA) following primary radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiation (CRT). Journal of Clinical Oncology 2017; 35:15_suppl:6002 doi: 10.1200/JCO.2017.35.15_suppl.6002

Ai Q-Y, King AD*, Mo FK, Law BKH, Bhatia KSS, Ma BB, Poon DMC, Kam MKM. Prediction of distant metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: improved diagnostic performance of MRI using nodal volume in N1 and N2 stage disease. Oral Oncology, 2017; 69:74-79. Doi: 10.1016/j.oral oncology.2017.04.008.

Ai Q-Y, King AD*, Mo FK, Law BKH, Bhatia KSS, Ma BB, Poon DMC, Kam MKM. Prediction of distant metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: improved diagnostic performance of MRI using nodal volume in N1 and N2 stage disease. Oral Oncology, 2017; 69:74-79.

Law BK, King AD*, Bhatia KS, Ahuja AT, Kam MK, Ma BB, Ai QY, Mo FK, Yuan J, Yeung DK. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Can Pretreatment DWI Predict Local Failure Based on Long-Term Outcome? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016;37(9):1706-1712

Nominee for the annual Lucien Levy Best Research Article Award. American Journal of Neuroradiology in 2016.

Abdel Razek A, King AD. MRI and CT of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2012;198:11-18

King AD*, Bhatia KS. Magnetic resonance imaging staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the head and neck. World Journal of Radiology. 2010;2:159-165

Hui EP, Ma BB, Leung SF, King AD, Mo F, Kam MK, Yu BK, Chiu SK, Kwan WH, Ho R, Chan I, Ahuja AT, Zee BC, Chan AT. Randomized phase II trial of concurrent cisplatin-radiotherapy with or without neoadjuvant docetaxel and cisplatin in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2009;10:27:242-249

Ma BB, Mo FK, Chan AT, Hui EP, Leung SF, Lo YM, Yau YY, King AD. The prognostic significance of tumor vascular invasion and its association with plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA, tumor volume and metabolic activity in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Oral Oncology 2008;44:1067-72

King AD*, Zee B, Yuen EH, Leung SF, Yeung DK, Ma BB, Wong JK, Kam MK, Ahuja AT, Chan AT. Nasopharyngeal cancers: which method should be used to measure these irregularly shaped tumors on cross-sectional imaging? International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 2007;69:148-154

Lee FK, Yeung DK, King AD, Leung SF, Ahuja AT. Segmentation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) lesions in MR images. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 2005;61:608-620

King AD*, Teo P, Lam WWM, Leung SF and Metreweli C. Paranasopharyngeal space involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: detection by CT and MRI. Clinical Oncology 2000; 12:397-402 

King AD*, Ahuja AT, Leung SF, Lam WWM, Teo P, Chan YL and Metreweli C. Neck node metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: MR imaging of patterns of disease. Head and Neck 2000; 22:275-281

King AD*, Lam W, Leung SF, Chan YL, Teo P, Metreweli C. MRI of local disease in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: tumour extent vs tumour stage. British Journal Radiology 1999; 72: 734-741

NPC Treatment-induced complications

Lee FK, King AD, Kam MK, Ma BB, Yeung DK. Radiation Injury of the Parotid Glands During Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer: Assessment Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging. Radiat Res 2011;3:175:291-296

King AD*, Griffith JF, Abrigo JM, Leung SF, Yau FK, Tse GMK, Ahuja AT. Osteoradionecrosis of the upper cervical spine: MR imaging following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. European Radiology 2010;73:629-635

Wang YX, King AD*, Zhou H, Leung SF, Abrigo J, Chan YL, Hu CW, Yeung DKW, Ahuja AT. Evolution of radiation-induced brain injury: MR imaging-based study. Radiology. 2010;254(1):210-218

Bhatia KS, King AD, Paunipagar BK, Abrigo J, Vlantis AC, Leung SF, Ahuja AT. MRI findings in patients with severe trismus following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. European Radiology 2009;19:2586-2593

Abrigo JM, King AD*, Leung SF, Vlantis AC, Wong JK, Tong MC, Tse GM, Ahuja AT.  MRI of radiation-induced tumors of the head and neck in post-radiation nasopharyngeal carcinoma. European Radiology 2009;19:1197-1205

King AD*, Ahuja AT, Leung SF, Abrigo J, Wong KT, Poon WS, Woo KS, Chan HS, Tse MK. MR imaging of non-malignant polyps and masses of the nasopharynx and sphenoid sinus following radiotherapy for nasophyaryngeal carcinoma. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2008;29:1209-1214

King AD*, Ahuja AT, Yeung DK, Wong JK, Lee YY, Lam WW, Ho SS, Yu SC, Leung SF. Delayed complications of radiotherapy treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: imaging findings. Clinical Radiology 2007;62:195-203

King AD*, Yuen EHY, Chan PN, Leung SF, Tse GMK, Kam MKM, Ahuja AT. MR mimics of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. European Journal of Radiology Extra 2005;55:23-27

King AD*, Ahuja AT, Teo P, Tse GMK, Kew J. Radiation induced sarcomas of the head and neck following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clinical Radiology 2000; 55:684-689

Chan YL, Leung SF, King AD, Choi P, Metreweli C. Late radiation injury to the temporal lobes: morphologic evaluation at MR imaging. Radiology 1999; 213: 800-807

Functional/Molecular MRI of Head & Neck Tumours


Zhang R, Ai QYH, Wong LM, Green C, Qamar S, So TY, Vlantis AC, King AD*. Radiomics for discriminating benign and malignant salivary gland tumors; which radiomic feature categories and mri sequences should be used?  Cancers (Basel). 2022 Nov 25;14(23):5804. doi: 10.3390/cancers14235804.

Ai QYH, Zhang H, Jiang B, So TY, Mo FKF, Qamar S, Chen W, King AD. Test-retest repeatability of T1rho (T1ρ) MR imaging in the head and neck. Eur J Radiol. 2021 Feb;135:109489. Epub 2020 Dec 24. Doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109489

Ai QY, Chen W, So TY, Lam WKJ, Jiang B, Poon DMC, Qamar S, Mo FKF, Blu T, Chan Q, Ma BBY, Hui EP, Chan KCA, King AD. Quantitative T1rho MRI of the head and neck discriminates carcinoma and benign hyperplasia in the nasopharynx. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2020, DOI:

Dai E, King AD*. Invited review. State of the art MRI in Head and Neck Cancer. Clinical Radiology 2018; 73:45-59. Doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2017.05.020

Yuan J, Lo G, King AD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques and their development for radiation therapy planning and monitoring in the head and neck cancers. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2016 Aug;6(4):430-448. doi: 10.21037/qims.2016.06.11. PMID: 27709079; PMCID: PMC5009093.

King AD*, Thoeny HC. Functional MRI for the prediction of treatment response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: potential and limitations. Cancer Imaging. 2016 Aug 19;16(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s40644-016-0080-6. Review

Thoeny HC, De Kayzer F, King AD. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the head and neck. Radiology 2012;263:19-32


Zhang R, King AD*, Wong LM, Bhatia KS, Qamar S, Mo FKF, Vlantis AC, Ai QYH. Discriminating between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors using diffusion-weighted imaging and intravoxel incoherent motion at 3 Tesla. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2023 Feb;104(2):67-75. doi: 10.1016/j.diii.2022.08.003. Epub 2022 Sep 10

So T, Ai QY, Ma BB, King AD. Early intra-treatment diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with nivolumab. International Journal of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery 2020; 6:568-573. Doi: 10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20200637

Qamar S, King AD*, Ai QY, So T, Mo FK, Chen WT, Poon DMC, Tong M, Ma BB, Hui EP, Yeung DKW, Wang YX, Yuan J. Pre-treatment intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging predicts treatment outcome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. European Journal of Radiology 2020;129:109127; doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109127

Ai QY, King AD*, Law BK, Yeung DK, Bhatia KS, Yuan J, Ahuja AT, Wong LY, Ma BB, Mo FK, Kam MK. Diffusion-weighted imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to predict distant metastases. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;274:1045-1051.ISMRM 24th Annual Meeting & Exhibition in Singapore, 7-13 May 2016.

Law BK, King AD*, Bhatia KS, Ahuja AT, Kam MK, Ma BB, Ai QY, Mo FK, Yuan J, Yeung DK. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Can Pretreatment DWI Predict Local Failure Based on Long-Term Outcome? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016;37(9):1706-1712

Yuan J, Yeung DK, Mok GS, Bhatia KS, Wang YX, Ahuja AT, King AD. Non-Gaussian analysis of diffusion weighted imaging in head and neck at 3T: a pilot study in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PLoS One 2014;9:e87024

King AD*, Chow KK, Yu KH, Mo FK, Yeung DK, Yuan J, Bhatia KS, Vlantis AC, Ahuja AT. Head and Neck squamous cell carcinoma: diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for the prediction of treatment response. Radiology 2013;266:531-538

Fong D, Bhatia KS, Yeung D, King AD. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, head and neck lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma at the primary site. Oral Oncology 2010;46(8):603-606

King AD*, Mo FK, Yu KH, Yeung DKW, Zhou Hua, Bhatia KS, Tse GMK, Vlantis AC, Wong JKT, Ahuja AT. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: diffusion-weighted MR imaging for prediction and monitoring of treatment response. European Radiology 2010;20:2213-2220

King AD*, Ahuja AT, Yeung DKW, Fong DKY, Lee YYP, Lei KIK, Tse GMK Malignant cervical lymphadenopathy: Diagnostic accuracy of MR diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Radiology 2007; 245:806-813


Yeung DK, Fong KY, Chan QC, King AD. Chemical shift imaging in the head and neck at 3T: initial results. Journal of Magn Reson Imaging. 2010;32:1248-1254

King AD*, Yeung DK, Yu KH, Mo FK, Bhatia KS, Tse GM, Vlantis AC, Wong JK, Hu CW, Ahuja AT. Pretreatment and early intratreatment prediction of clinicopathologic response of head and neck cancer to chemoradiotherapy using 1H-MRS. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2010;32:199-203

King AD*, Yeung DK, Yu KH, Mo FK, Hu CW, Bhatia KS, Tse GM, Vlantis AC, Wong KT, Ahuja AT. Monitoring of treatment response after chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer using in vivo (1)HMR spectroscopy. European Radiology 2010;20:165-172

King AD*, Yeung DK, Ahuja AT, Tse GMK, Yuen HY, Wong KT, van Hasselt CA. Salivary gland tumors at in vivo proton MR spectroscopy. Radiology 2005; 237: 563-569

King AD*, Yeung DK, Ahuja AT, Yuen EH, Ho SF, Tse GM, van Hasselt. Human cervical lymphadenopathy: evaluation with in vivo 1H-MRS at 1.5T. Clinical Radiology 2005;60:592-598

King AD*, Yeung DK, Ahuja AT, Tse GM, Chan AB, Lam SS, van Hasselt AC. In vivo 1H MR spectroscopy of thyroid carcinoma. European Journal of Radiology 2005;54:112-117


King AD*, Chow SKK, Yu KH, Mo FKF, Yeung DKW, Yuan J, Law BKH, Bhatia KS, Vlantis AC, Ahuja AT. DCE-MRI for pre-treatment prediction and post-treatment assessment of treatment response in sites of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck. PLoS One 2015 Dec 10;10(12):e0144770

Shi L, Wang D, Liu W, Fang K, Wang YX, Huang W, King AD, Heng PA, Ahuja AT. Automatic detection of arterial input function in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI based on affinity propagation clustering. J Magn Reson Imaging 2014;39:1327-1337

Yuan J, Chow SK, Zhang Q, Yeung DK, Ahuja AT, King AD. The use of dynamic tracer concentration in veins for quantitative DCE-MRI kinetic analysis in head and neck. PLoS One 2013;8:e59885

Yuan J, Chow SK, Yeung DK, Ahuja AT, King AD. Quantitative evaluation of dual-flip-angle T1 mapping on DCE-MRI kinetic parameter estimation in head and neck. Quant Imaging Med Surg 2012;2:245-253

Yuan J, Chow SK, King AD, Yeung DK. Heuristic linear mapping of physiological parameters in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI without T(1) measurement and contrast agent concentration. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012;35:916-925

Yuan J, Chow SK, Yeung DK, King AD. A five-colour colour-coded mapping method for DCE-MRI analysis of head and neck tumours. Clin Radiol 2012;67:216-223

Lee FK, King AD, Ma BB, Yeung DK. Dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for differential diagnosis in head and neck cancers. Eur J Radiol 2012;81:784-788

King AD*, Lam W, Chan YL, Leung SF, Metreweli C. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: dynamic MR imaging with gadolinium. Chinese Medical Journal 1998; 111:593-598


Qamar S, King AD*, Ai QH, Mo FKF, Chen W, Poon DMC, Tong M, Ma BB, Yeung DK, Wang YX, Yuan J. Pre-treatment amide proton transfer imaging predicts treatment outcome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eur Radiol. 2020 30(11):6339-6347 Doi: 10.1007/s00330-020-06985-5

Qamar S, King AD*, Ai QY, Law BKH, Chan JSM, Poon DMC, Tong M, Mo FKF, Chen W, Bhatia KS, Ahuja AT, Ma BBY, Yeung DK, Wang YX, Yuan J. Amide proton transfer MRI detects early changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: providing a potential imaging marker for treatment response. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2019;276:505-512.Doi: 10.1007/s00405-018-5231-x

Law BKH, King AD*, Ai QY, Poon DMC, Chen W, Bhatia KS, Ahuja AT, Ma BB, Yeung DKW, Mo FK, Wang YX, Yuan J. Head and neck tumors: Amide proton transfer MRI. Radiology 2018; 288:782–790.  Doi: 10.1148/radiol.2018171528.

Yuan J, Chen SZ, King AD, Zhou JY, Bhatia KS, Zhang QW, Yeung DK, Wei J, Mok G, Wang YX. Amide proton transfer-weighted imaging of the head and neck at 3T: a feasibility study on healthy human subjects and patients with head and neck cancer. NMR In Biomedicine 2014;27:1239-1247

MRI Post-treatment Neck

King AD*, Yu KH, Mo FK, Law BK, Yuen TW, Bhatia KS, Vlantis AC. Cervical nodal metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: MRI criteria for treatment assessment. Head Neck. 2016 Apr; 38 Suppl 1:E1598-604.

King AD*, Keung CK, Yu KH, Mo FK, Bhatia KS, Yeung DK, Tse GM, Vlantis AC, Ahuja AT. T2-weighted MR imaging early after chemoradiotherapy to evaluate treatment response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. AJNR AM J Neuroradiol 2013;34:1237-1241

Bhatia KS, King AD, Yu KH, Vlantis AC, Tse GM, Mo FK, Ahuja AT. Does primary tumour volumetry performed early in the course of definitive concomitant chemoradiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma improve prediction of primary site outcome? British Journal of Radiology 2010;83:964-970

For functional studies please see above

MRI of Head & Neck lymphoma, Lymph nodes, and Thyroid cancer

HS Leung, SYW Liu, KT Wong, SM Yu, AD King. (2023) Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography for Localisation of Parathyroid Adenomas, Hong Kong J Radiol 2023 Sep;26(3):185-93

Ai QYH, So TY, Hung KF, King AD*. Normal size of benign upper neck nodes on MRI: parotid, submandibular, occipital, facial, retroauricular and level IIb nodal groups. Cancer Imaging. 2022 Dec 8;22(1):66. doi: 10.1186/s40644-022-00504-z.

Ko KWS, Bhatia KS, Ai QYH, King AD*. Imaging of head and neck mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). Cancer Imaging. 2021 Jan 12;21(1):10. Doi: 10.1186/s40644-020-00380-5

King AD*, Law BK, Tang WK, Mo FK, Raghupathy R, Bhatia KS, Lei KI. MRI of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the head and neck: comparison of Waldeyer’s ring and sinonasal lymphoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;274(2):1079-1087. doi: 10.1007/s00405-016-4337-2.

King AD*, Lei KI, Ahuja AT. MRI of neck nodes in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the head and neck. British Journal of Radiology 2004;77:111-115

King AD*, Yuen HY, Lei KIK, Ahuja AT, van Hasselt A. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the larynx: CT and MR imaging findings. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2004;25:12-15

King AD*, Lei KIK, Richards PS, Ahuja AT. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the nasopharynx: CT and MR Imaging. Clinical Radiology 2003;59:621-625

King AD*, Lei IK, Ahuja AT. MRI of primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the palatine tonsil. British Journal of Radiology 2001; 74: 226-229

King AD*, Lei IK, Ahuja AT, Lam WWM, Metreweli C. MR imaging of nasal T-cell / natural killer cell lymphoma. American Journal of Roentgenology 2000; 174:209-211.

King AD*. Imaging for staging and management of thyroid cancer. Cancer Imaging 2008;8:57-69

King AD*, Ahuja AT, To EWH, Tse GMK, Metreweli C. Staging papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: magnetic resonance imaging vs ultrasound of the neck. Clinical Radiology 2000; 55:222-226

King AD*, Tse GMK, Yuen E, To EWH, Vlantis AC, Zee B, Chan BW, van Hasselt AC, Ahuja AT. Comparison of CT and MR imaging for the detection of extranodal neoplastic spread in metastatic neck nodes. European Journal of Radiology 2004;52:264-270

King AD*, Tse GMK, Ahuja AT, Yuen EHY, Vlantis AC, To EWH, van Hasselt AC.  Necrosis in metastatic neck nodes: diagnostic accuracy of CT, MR imaging and US. Radiology 2004;230:720-726